# Writing A Rest API For The Pi Rover

Updated on 2017-03-25: added a static file server and set cors headers

Over the past few weeks I have been building a raspberry pi zero w based rover. This post follows on from the previous posts which you can checkout below.

In this post we are going to look at wrapping our rover api into a rest api that we will be able to build a web interface on top of.

# New Dependencies

Add the following to the [dependencies] section in Cargo.toml.

iron = "0.5.0"
router = "0.5.1"
logger = "0.3.0"
staticfile = "0.4.0"
mount = "0.3"
unicase = "1.4.0"
log = "0.3.7"
env_logger = "0.4.2"
chan-signal = "0.2.0"
chan = "0.1.19"
serde = "0.9.11"
serde_json = "0.9.9"
serde_derive = "0.9.11"

For this we require a fair few dependencies, lets take a brief moment to talk about what each one brings us below.

  • Iron is the web framework that we are going to use, it is currently the most popular web framework for rust but unfortunately still lacks in overall documentation. This, however, also holds true for allot of the alternative frameworks. Rocket was a tempting alternative, its documentation seems more complete but still requires rust nightly which I want to avoid at the moment.

  • Router is simply the router middleware for the iron web framework, it lets us handle multiple paths and bind them to different functions.

  • Logger is the logging middleware for iron. It lets us log all of the requests that we receive with some useful information like the time it took to process.

  • Staticfile allows serving static files from iron. This will be used to serve our user interface which we will develop in the next post.

  • Mount allows us up mount handlers on different paths. This is similar to the router, but forwards all sub paths that and methods match the prefix.

  • Unicase handle case insensitive strings. This is required for settings some of the headers.

  • Log gives us some handy macros like info! warning! and error! that act like the println! macro allowing us to print scoped messages to the logs.

  • Env_logger is the implementation of logging, they two libraries above basically wrap this library.

  • Chan gives us access to channels which we use with chan-signal.

  • Chan-signal library allow us to capture and gracefully handle signals that might be sent to our program. In particular we want to be able to tear down our rover (aka stop it) when our webserver exits for any reason. SIGTERM and SIGINT are two signals that are commonly used to tell applications to stop. SIGTERM is sent by default when you run kill and SIGINT is sent when you press ctrl+c.

  • Serde is a serialisation library, it allows us to convert different encoded string into structs and vice versa. We will make use of it to convert message we send back to the client and messages we receive from the client to a form rust understands.

  • Serde_json is the json implementation of serde, we are only going to be converting to and from json.

  • Serde_derive allows us to use #[derive(Serialize, Deserialize)] save us from writing a bunch of boiler plate code to serialize and deserialize our types and overall makes the serde library very simple to use.

# The Rover Server

In this section we will look at writing src/bin/rover-server.rs which will become our server binary, this is the only rust file we will need to edit. I am going to split this file up to talk about each bit separately, each of the sections below should be appended to src/bin/rover-server.rs as it is mentioned.

# Includes

This first bit is simple, we just declare all the external libraries that we will be using and any use statements. Also we define a few constants that we used in the rover-cli tool.

extern crate rpizw_rover;
extern crate iron;
extern crate router;
extern crate mount;
extern crate staticfile;
extern crate unicase;
extern crate logger;
extern crate chan;
extern crate chan_signal;
extern crate log;
extern crate env_logger;
extern crate serde_derive;
extern crate serde_json;

use iron::prelude::*;
use iron::{status, AfterMiddleware};
use iron::method::Method;
use iron::headers;
use iron::mime::{Mime, TopLevel, SubLevel, Attr, Value};
use logger::Logger;
use router::Router;
use mount::Mount;
use staticfile::Static;
use std::path::Path;
use rpizw_rover::Rover;
use chan_signal::Signal;
use std::io::Read;
use unicase::UniCase;

const PWM_CHIP: u32 = 0;
const LEFT_PWM: u32 = 0;
const RIGHT_PWM: u32 = 1;

# Response Structures

All of the possible responses from our api will be constructed from the ResponsePayload enum. This allows us to strictly define all possible responses in one place and handle them together. As you can see from the # annotation around the enum, it can be serialized and deserialized by serde. We also use the untagged flag as we don't want any extra tags surrounding or within our response. You can read more about the container attributes for serde here.

The only possible responses we require at the moment is the error response which will look like {"success":false,"error":"some error message"} to the client. As well as the success message, {"success":true}. We can expand on these in the future if we require more response types (for example returning the current speed, status or sensor data).

/// The payload that is json encoded and send back for every request.
#[derive(Serialize, Deserialize, Debug)]
enum ResponsePayload {
    Error { success: bool, error: String },
    Simple { success: bool },

We also create some convince functions to make this structure easier to work with.

impl ResponsePayload {
    /// The response that is sent when an error in encountered.
    pub fn error(error: String) -> ResponsePayload {
        ResponsePayload::Error {
            success: false,
            error: error,
    /// The response that is sent when a request is carried out without error
    /// and there is no data to return to the client.
    pub fn success() -> ResponsePayload {
        ResponsePayload::Simple { success: true }

    /// Converts the payload to a iron response with the ok status.
    pub fn to_response(self) -> Response {
        let mut res = Response::with((status::Ok, serde_json::to_string(&self).unwrap()));
                                                  vec![(Attr::Charset, Value::Utf8)])));

# Error Macro

Iron has a very useful macro itry! that wraps rusts try! macro making it easier to return IronErrors. We have reimplemented this macro so that we can json encode the error messages produced and place it in the body of the response. It has three possible ways it can be called,

  • rtry!(rover.stop()) - that produce the default message and an internal server error.
  • rtry!(rover.stop(), "could not stop: {}") - that produces a custom message round the error message as an internal server error.
  • rtry!(rover.stop(), "could not stop: {}", status.BadRequest) - the produces a custom message with the specified status.
/// Reimplementation of irons itry! macro that sets the body to a json message on error.
macro_rules! rtry {
    ($result:expr) => (rtry!($result, "{}"));
    ($result:expr, $message:expr) => (rtry!($result, $message, iron::status::InternalServerError));
    ($result:expr, $message:expr, $status:expr) => (match $result {
        ::std::result::Result::Ok(val) => val,
        ::std::result::Result::Err(err) => {
            let message = serde_json::to_string(&ResponsePayload::error(format!($message,
            return ::std::result::Result::Err(iron::IronError::new(err, ($status, message)))

# Resetting The Rover

Here is a simple helper function to reset the rover to a consistent state. Its job is to ensure the rover has been properly initialised from any state it may have ended up in. It does this by exporting, disabling then unexporting the pwm modules. This was required as there was some weird behaviour something did not disable the pwm modules before unexporting them previously. We then reexport, stop and enable them.

/// Helper function to ensure the rover is stopped, enabled and ready to start.
fn reset_rover() -> rpizw_rover::error::Result<()> {
    let rover = Rover::new(PWM_CHIP, LEFT_PWM, RIGHT_PWM)?;

# The Main Function

fn main() {

First we setup the env_logger so it is ready for whenever we require it and reset the rover as defined in the last section.


Next we setup the routes our application will handle. The functions used here will be defined in the next section. Note that all of the endpoints are put calls as they all set things on the rover.

    let mut api_router = Router::new();
    api_router.put("/reset", reset, "reset");
    api_router.put("/stop", stop, "stop");
    api_router.put("/enable", enable, "enable");
    api_router.put("/disable", disable, "disable");
    api_router.put("/speed", set_speed, "set_speed");

Iron has a very flexible middleware system, which is used by chaining middleware together with the Chain type. We want to create a very basic CORS implementation to make development of our interface easier. We will talk more about this in a later section when we create the middleware.

    let mut api_chain = Chain::new(api_router);
    let cors_middleware = CORS {};


Our user interface will be served from a static location, we do this with the Static type from the staticfile crate. It simply takes a directory and will serve any files it finds there. We also mount the api_chain from above to /api so that any url prefixed by that will be handled by the api router, everything else will be served from the static path.

    let mut root_mount = Mount::new();
    root_mount.mount("/api/", api_chain);
    root_mount.mount("/", Static::new(Path::new("/srv/rover/ui")));

We want all requests to be logged by the server so we add the logger middleware to the root_mount. Where as the CORS middleware will only apply to the api routes. We add the logger_before to execute before our router, which sets up some timing variables that are used by logger_after. logger_after is setup to run after our router and outputs the request to the logs detailing what was called and how long it took, as well as any errors that were encountered.

    let mut root_chain = Chain::new(root_mount);
    let (logger_before, logger_after) = Logger::new(None);

Now we are ready to get things running, we just need to start chan_signal to listen for SIGTERM and SIGINT then start they iron web server.

    let signal = chan_signal::notify(&[Signal::INT, Signal::TERM]);
    let mut serv = Iron::new(root_chain).http("").unwrap();
    info!("listening on");

We capture the serv here so that we don't block on the server but instead block on the chan_singal we setup above in the select defined below. This allows us to wait for a signal and close the server once we receive it followed by any tear down code we require.

    // Block until SIGINT or SIGTERM is sent.
    chan_select! {
        signal.recv() -> _ => {
            info!("received signal shutting down");
            // Shutdown the server. Note that there is currently a bug in hyper
            // that means the server does not actually stop listening at this
            // point.

Lastly we ensure we stop the rover so it does not go running off uncontrollably and end the main function.

    // Ensure we stop the rover and cleanup.
    let rover = Rover::new(PWM_CHIP, LEFT_PWM, RIGHT_PWM).unwrap();

# Route Functions

The routes we used above can now be defined, they are all very similar. They simply call the appropriate rover function and return an Ok response if no error was encountered. The reset function just calls the reset helper function we defined and used in previous sections.

/// Resets the rover to its default settings.
fn reset(_: &mut Request) -> IronResult<Response> {

/// Stops the rover from moving. Equivalent to settings its speed to 0.
fn stop(_: &mut Request) -> IronResult<Response> {
    let rover = rtry!(Rover::new(PWM_CHIP, LEFT_PWM, RIGHT_PWM));

/// Enables the rover, allowing it to move. The rover will start moving at what
/// ever its speed was last set to (this includes stop). It is recommended to
/// call `speed` or `stop` before enabling movement if you are unsure about its
/// previous speed.
fn enable(_: &mut Request) -> IronResult<Response> {
    let rover = rtry!(Rover::new(PWM_CHIP, LEFT_PWM, RIGHT_PWM));

/// Disables the rover, stopping it from moving and reacting to future calls to
/// speed/stop. Note that this is a soft stop, it does not cause the rover to
/// `break` like calling `stop` does. As a result the rover will coast for a
/// short period of time. If this is not desired then call `stop` followed by a
/// short delay before disabling the rover.
fn disable(_: &mut Request) -> IronResult<Response> {
    let rover = rtry!(Rover::new(PWM_CHIP, LEFT_PWM, RIGHT_PWM));

The set_speed endpoint is slightly more complex as it needs to accept and parse some user input. This is done by creating a struct and json decoding the body of the request. Then passes these values to the set_speed function on the rover. It also returns a BadRequest if it could not parse the json.

/// Sets the speed of the rover. The speed can be any value from 100 to -100. 0
/// causes the rover to break and negative numbers cause it to go in reverse.
fn set_speed(req: &mut Request) -> IronResult<Response> {
    #[derive(Serialize, Deserialize, Debug)]
    struct SpeedRequest {
        left: i8,
        right: i8,
    let mut body = String::new();
    rtry!(req.body.read_to_string(&mut body));
    let SpeedRequest { left, right } = rtry!(serde_json::from_str(&body),
                                             "invalid json: {}",

    let rover = rtry!(Rover::new(PWM_CHIP, LEFT_PWM, RIGHT_PWM));
    rtry!(rover.set_speed(left, right));

# CORS Middleware

Cross Origin Resource Sharing (aka CORS) is a standard introduced into browsers to relax their strict same origin policies. This basically stops websites from accessing resources of other websites surreptitiously via the users web browser. This does however make developing our user interface harder we would not be able to call the api on our rover from a web server running on our development machine. We have no user data or even authentication so this limitation does not protect our users/application from anything but makes development more tedious.

To relax these constraints we must set a few headers, to do this for all responses from our api we create our own middleware to append them to the response.

struct CORS;

impl CORS {
    fn add_headers(res: &mut Response) {

impl AfterMiddleware for CORS {
    fn after(&self, req: &mut Request, mut res: Response) -> IronResult<Response> {
        if req.method == Method::Options {
            res = Response::with(status::Ok);
        CORS::add_headers(&mut res);

    fn catch(&self, _: &mut Request, mut err: IronError) -> IronResult<Response> {
        CORS::add_headers(&mut err.response);

# Compiling And Running

Compile the code like we did for the rover-cli tool

cargo build --bin rover-server --target=arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf

Then upload and run the server

scp target/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf/debug/rover-server alarm@rpizw-rover.local:
ssh -t alarm@rpizw-rover.local sudo RUST_LOG=info ./rover-server

Note that with env_logger we can set the log level we want to use by setting the RUST_LOG environment variable. Currently most of the messages are in the info level so we use that to see requests being made.

We can now call the endpoints using curl or rest api explorer like postman.

Try out some of the following.

curl -XPUT http://rpizw-rover.local:3000/api/speed -d '{"left":100,"right":100}'
curl -XPUT http://rpizw-rover.local:3000/api/speed -d '{"left":-100,"right":-100}'
curl -XPUT http://rpizw-rover.local:3000/api/stop
curl -XPUT http://rpizw-rover.local:3000/api/reset
curl -XPUT http://rpizw-rover.local:3000/api/disable
curl -XPUT http://rpizw-rover.local:3000/api/speed -d '{"left":100,"right":-100}'
curl -XPUT http://rpizw-rover.local:3000/api/enable
curl -XPUT http://rpizw-rover.local:3000/api/stop
curl -iXPUT http://rpizw-rover.local:3000/api/speed -d '{}'
#HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request
#Content-Length: 81
#Access-Control-Allow-Origin: *
#Access-Control-Allow-Headers: accept, content-type
#Access-Control-Allow-Methods: PUT
#Content-Type: text/plain
#Date: Sun, 19 Mar 2017 12:40:56 GMT
#{"success":false,"error":"invalid json: missing field `left` at line 1 column 2"}

# The Service File

You can start rover-server in the background and detach it from your terminal by running it with sudo ./rover-server & disown. But it is far better to let our init system (systemd for archlinux) handle this for us by creating a service file that defines how to start our service. This also allows us to set it to start on boot so we don't need to log into our rover at all (well, except to setup the wireless for the moment).

Lets move the server to /usr/local/bin

sudo mv ./rover-server /usr/local/bin/rover-server

Then create a service at src/bin/rover-server.service with the following contents (do this locally rather then on the pi so we can include it in the repo and add it to the image in the next section).

Description=Rest API for a Raspberry Pi Zero W Rover



And copy it to our rover, ssh into the rover and install/start the service.

scp src/bin/rover-server.service alarm@rpizw-rover.local:
ssh -t alarm@rpizw-rover.local
> sudo cp rover-server.service /etc/systemd/system/rover-server.service
> sudo systemctl daemon-reload
> sudo systemctl start rover-server
> sudo systemctl enable rover-server

# Adding The Binary And Service File To Our Image

Once again we must make a small tweak to the create-image script to include our new binary and service file in the images we build. This way they is no extra setup and will just start running once the pi is booted for the first time. This is the same process to how we added the rover-cli binary, by including a check for the binary and copying it and the service file to the mounted image. Below is the diff for these changes.

diff --git a/create-image b/create-image
index a026d6c..76fe54a 100755
--- a/create-image
+++ b/create-image
@@ -22,6 +22,11 @@ if [ ! -f "target/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf/release/rover-cli" ]; then
     exit 1

+if [ ! -f "target/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf/release/rover-server" ]; then
+    echo "'target/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf/release/rover-server' not found. Have you run 'cargo build --release --target=arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf'?"
+    exit 1
 # Unmount drives and general cleanup on exit, the trap ensures this will always
 # run execpt in the most extreme cases.
 cleanup() {
@@ -64,6 +69,7 @@ tar -xpf "${rpi_tar}" -C ${mount} 2> >(grep -v "Ignoring unknown extended header
 # Copy our installation script and other artifacts
 install -Dm755 "${script}" "${mount}/tmp/${script}"
 install -Dm755 "target/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf/release/rover-cli" "${mount}/usr/local/bin/rover-cli"
+install -Dm755 "target/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf/release/rover-server" "${mount}/usr/local/bin/rover-server"
+install -Dm755 "src/bin/rover-server.service" "${mount}/etc/systemd/system/rover-server.service"

 # Prep the chroot
 mount -t proc none ${mount}/proc

One extra change is needed in the setup script to enable our service on boot.

diff --git a/setup b/setup
index 0c7f4be..5ceb245 100755
--- a/setup
+++ b/setup
@@ -51,6 +51,9 @@ ln -sf /usr/lib/systemd/system/getty@ttyGS0.service /etc/systemd/system/getty.ta
 # Enable hardware pwm
 grep 'dtoverlay=pwm-2chan,pin=12,func=4,pin2=13,func2=4' /boot/config.txt >/dev/null || echo 'dtoverlay=pwm-2chan,pin=12,func=4,pin2=13,func2=4' >> /boot/config.txt

+# Enable the rover-server to start on boot
+ln -sf /etc/systemd/system/rover-server.service /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/rover-server.service
 # Set zsh as the default shell for root and alram
 chsh -s /usr/bin/zsh root
 chsh -s /usr/bin/zsh alarm

Now you can build the binary and image by running.

cargo build --release --target=arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf
sudo ./create-image

Finally you can burn the image to an sd card, boot the pi, setup the wireless, just like we have previously done. Once booted and connected to the network we can control the rover through the rest api.

# Conclusion

Although very basic this give a good starting point that we can build upon later. There are a number of things missing from what we have done so far, most notability the total lack of authentication and authorisation allowing anyone to control the rover simply by knowing its ip or hostname. In addition to the basic access controls the whole application must currently run as root making it easier for potential attackers to gain root access if there are any bugs in our program. Not to mention the use of a the default user and password accessible over ssh (which you really should change on your first login).

Considering this is a simple demo and is still a work in progress these are not a major concern at the moment but I will be looking to address some of the security issues in a future post. For now I would just re-image the rover if it is ever connected to an untrusted network. Thankfully our automated image creation makes this simple and repeatable as long as we don't live customise the image too much.

The iron web framework was a major pain point in writing this, mostly due to its lack of overall documentation and outdated/misleading examples that can be found online. They have fairly detailed documentation about every bit of the api, but lack any good examples of how it should all tie in together or was designed to be used. The other frameworks did not off much of a better alternative in this regard except perhaps the rocket framework, which still requires rust nightly to compile. Although there is nothing fundamentally wrong with the rust web ecosystem it is still quite immature and these issues will hopefully be solved over time.

You can view the final source code on the v0.4 branch or download the image created from this process here.

Now we only have one core component left to write: the front end code that will run in the browser and communicate with the rest api we developed in this post.